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Introduction

This page provides some more information about my Great-Uncle Private William Wilby, who is one of the Earsham service personnel commemorated on the Earsham War Memorial.

William Wilby

William Wilby, known in his family as Billy, was born in Earsham in October 1894; one of 12 children of George and Jane Wilby. He attended the village school until the age of 12 when he left to start work in a bakers shop in Bungay. Contrary to his Mother's wishes, when he became 16 in 1910, Billy enlisted in the British Army, as a regular soldier. He was placed into E Company, 2nd Battalion, Norfolk Regiment, which at this time was stationed at Norwich's Britannia Barracks.

Pte Wilby

8363 Private William Wilby, 2nd Norfolk Regiment (Stratford family)

His second posting was to Ireland where he was stationed in Belfast. During February 1911, he came home on 3 week's leave. This was the last time his family ever saw him. He sailed for India aboard the Motor Vessel Plassey he was then aged 18. He was stationed at Belgaum south of Bombay in what is now Karnataka State.

From India to Mesopotamia

To protect the British owned oil fields in Persia and to stop Turkish domination of the Middle East an Indian Expeditionary Force was sent to the Persian Gulf. As part of this Force the Norfolk Regiment left Belgaum for Bombay under the command of Lieu-Colonel E C Peebles and boarded HM Transport Elephanta on 6 November1914. The 2nd Norfolks arrived at Seniyeh in the Persian Gulf on 15 November 1914 and joined the 18th Brigade, which consisted of the 7th Rajput's, 110th Mahratta Light Infantry and 120th Rajputana Infantry.

Private Wilby took part in all the following battles:

20/11/1914 16th Brigade attack Basra the Turks evacuate after short battle.
December 1914 An attack is mounted on Kurna causing the Turks Surrender
February 1915 Norfolks are withdrawn to Basra to defend it against a Turkish and Arab counter attack.
12/02/15 Turks attack British troops under the command of Major General Mellis. The Norfolks lost 7 offices and 243 men killed.
June 1915 Norfolks rejoin main Brigade for the advance on Amara, Turks are defeated and the town captured.
July 1915 Brigade capture Nasaryieh and advance towards Kut-el-Amara. Kut is attacked and after 3 days of fighting the town is captured. The Norfolks continue to follow the Turks towards Ctesiphon.
November 1915 The major advance on Baghdad begins.
22/11/1915 Battle of Ctesiphon British force of 11000 defeat a Turkish force of over 18000. Battle ends with a bayonet charge across open ground. Norfolks suffer 6 officers killed 27 men killed, 225 wounded and 2 missing.
24/11/1915 The Brigade under the command of General Townshend suffering losses and sickness has to withdraw to Kut. The Norfolks form the rear guard as the Brigade withdraws. The 44 miles to Kut is covered in 36 hours. The 2nd Norfolks now comprise half their effective fighting strength.

The following letter was written, in pencil, by Private Wilby to one his sisters. It is believed to have been the last letter that he wrote. It was written sometime during the initial advance towards Kut-el-Amara.

Aug 10th 1915

My Dear Sister,

Just a few lines in answer to your letter which of course I was very pleased to receive and hear that you are getting on very well at Norwich. What nice company Bertha must be for you as you can show her about Norwich; as you must be quite an experienced guide by this time. I am sorry that I could not answer your letter and write to you more often, but I have not had the convenience but I will try more in future. We had a fight but the enemy got their usual beating and our casualties were very few again I am glad to say. The weather is still rather warm, but the cold weather will soon be coming on again and that will be a good thing when it does. I have had a nice letter from home and all seems fine there. I am glad to say that all the Earsham chaps here are going well and strong still, so I will conclude with the best of love. I remain your ever loving brother,

Billy.

The Battle mentioned in the letter may have been the capture of Nasaryieh.

The Brigade arrives at Kut

On 5 December 1915, The Brigade arrives at Kut. The Turks are reinforced in great numbers and surround the town. They positions on the other side of the river and cut the garrison off from help from outside.

The following table shows the strength of the Kut garrison at the start of the siege.

British Officers 206
Other Ranks 2276
Indian Officers 153
Indian Troops 6941
Followers 3500
Total 13076

The order of battle of the force under Major-General Townshend, besieged in Kut al Amara is shown below.

Headquarters 6th Division:

G.S.O. (1) Lieutenant-Colonel U.W. Evans, RE.

A.Q.M.G. Lieutenant-Colonel W.W. Chitty.

Infantry:

16th infantry Brigade:

2nd Dorsetshire Regiment commanded by Major G.M. Herbert

66th Punjabis (Lieutenant-Colonel A. Moore), 104th Rifles (Captain C.M S. Manners) and 117th Mahrattas (Major Mc V. Crichton) under the command of Major-General W. S Delamain.

17th Infantry Brigade:

1st Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry (Lieutenant-Colonel E.A.E. Lethbridge), 22nd Punjabis (Capt A.O. Sutherland), 103rd Mahrattas (Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Brown) and 119th Infantry (Captain F.I.O Brickman) under the command of Brigadier-General F.A. Hoghton.

18th Infantry Brigade:

2nd Norfolk Regiment (Major F.C. Lodge), 7th Rajputs (Lieutenant-Colonel H.O. Parr), 110th Mahrattas (Major H.C. Hill) and 120th Infantry (Major P.F. Pocock) under the command of Brigadier-General W. G. Hamilton.

30th Infantry Brigade:

Half battalion 2nd Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment (Major J.W. Nelson), One company 1/4th Hampshire Regiment (Major F.L. Footner), 24th Punjabis (Lieutenant-Colonel H.A.V. Cummins), 76th Punjabis (Captain E. Milford), 2/7th Gurkhas (Lieutenant-Colonel W.B. Powell) and Half battalion 67th Punjabis (Major C.E.S. Cox) under the command of Major-General Sir C. Melliss.

Pioneers:

48th Pioneers (Colonel A.J.N. Harward).

Calvalry:

One squadron, 23rd Cavalry (Captain C.H.K. Kirkwood).

One squadron, 7th Lancers (Lieutenant F.T. Drake-Brockman).

Royal Engineers:

Bridging Train (Captain E.W.C. Sandes), 17th Company, Sappers and Miners (Lieutenant K.B.S. Crawford), 22nd Company, Sappers and Miners (Lieutenant A.B. Matthews), Sirmur Company, Imperial Service Sappers (Captain C.E. Colbeck) and Engineer Field Park (Captain H.W. Tomlinson) under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel F.A. Wilson.

Artillery:

All artillery units were under the overall command of Brigadier-General G.B. Smith.

10th Brigade:

RFA 63rd Battery (Major H. Broke Smith), 76th Battery (Major O.S. Lloyd) and 82nd Battery (Major E. Corbould Warren) under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel H.N. St. J. Maule.

Other Artillery Units:

1/5th Hants Howitzer Battery (Major H.G. Thomson).

86th Heavy Battery, RGA (Lieutenant-Colonel M.H. Courtenay).

One section, 104th Heavy Battery, RGA (Major W.C.R Farmar).

Volunteer Artillery Battery (Major A.J. Anderson).

One spare 18-pounder gun.

6th Divisional Ammunition Column (Captain E.T. Martin).

Two 13-pounder guns of "S" Battery, RHA.

Miscellaneous:

Maxim Battery (six machine guns) (Captain C.H. Stockiey).

Detachment, Army Signal Company (Major F. Booth).

34th Divisional Signal Company (Captain H.S. Cardew).

One brigade section, 12th Divisional Signal Company.

Wireless section (two wagon and one pack set).

A few details, Royal Flying Corps (Captain S.C. Winfield-Smith).

Supply and Transport personnel, including details of the Jaipur Transport Corps and of the 13th, 21st, 26th and 30th Mule Corps (Lieutenant-Colonel A.S.R. Annesley).

No. 32 Field Post Office.

Chaplains:

Rev. H. Spooner (Church of England).

Rev. Father T. Mullen (Roman Catholic).

Rev. A.Y. Wright (Wesleyan).

Medical Units:

All Medical Units were under the overall command of Colonel P. Hehir, Indian Medical Service.

No. 2 Field Ambulance.

No. 4 Field Ambulance.

No. 9 Indian General Hospital.

No. 106 Field Ambulance.

No. 157 Indian Stationary Hospital.

Half No. 3A British General Hospital Officers' Hospital.

One section, Veterinary Field Hospital (Captain H. Stephenson).

Naval Detachment:

HMS Sumana (Lieutenant L.C.P. Tudway, RN): gunboat, one 12-pounder and two 3-pounder guns. Of these guns, the 12-pounder and one of the 3-pounder guns were mounted ashore in March 1916.

Four steam launches. Of these launches, 3 were sunk on the 9-10 December 1915.

Two motor launches.

Six barges.

Four 4.7-inch guns in horse-boats (Lieutenant M.A.B. Johnston, RGA)

One 12-pounder gun intended for HMS. Firefly. This gun was mounted ashore in January 1916.

The Siege of Kut

During the siege of Kut which lasted for 5 months aircraft were first used to try and drop supplies to the garrison. The aircraft could not carry enough supplies some were shot down and the attempt ended in failure. The Turks used aircraft more successfully in bombing the town, many troops having been wounded were then killed in hospital by an air raid. Several attempts were made to break out across the river on floating bridges, but as the river was in flood at this time of the year the attempts failed. Radio contact with the outside world was kept up until the end.

Towards the end of the siege the daily ration for British troops was reduced to ten ounces of bread and one pound of horse or mule flesh. Indian troops who refused to eat flesh were dying of scurvy at the rate of 10 to 20 a day. In all 1746 people died during the siege from wounds or disease.

Kut falls

On 29 April 1916 Kut surrendered to the Turks. After agreeing terms, Townshend marched his troops out into captivity, and certain death for most of them. Most of the Arabs left in Kut were hanged by the Turks for helping the British.

Thus began the forced march from what is now Iraq into Turkey to prison camps. This forced march being a foretaste of similar marches in the Second World War, such as the forced march of American and Pilipino POWs on Bataan in 1942.

During May 1916, 2000 British Troops, including the Norfolks, started the march some were still in Khaki some were almost naked. The first day they walked 15 miles without food or water. Behind the column were many dead or dying, those who dropped out were killed by the Arab guards. They were first taken to a temporary camp at Shumran about 80 miles from Kut.

The Kurdish guards had stolen the troops food rations and even their water bottles and boots. The British officers were separated at Shumran and were taken up river by steamer leaving their men to walk and die. Wounded officers were then repatriated to India. From Kut to Baghdad is 100 miles, marching 12-15 miles a day lying at night on the open ground. They were herded like sheep by mounted guards with sticks and whips.

The route of the death march was through what is now Iraq into Turkey, a distance of over 400 miles: Aziziya, Baghdad, Tikrit, Mosul, Nisibin, Ras alAin, Mamourra and Aran

The American Ambassadors at Constantinople (Messrs. Morgenthau and Elkus) saw the results of the march and protested, but to no avail. Other diplomatic efforts during the siege, such as the payment of ransom to the Turkish Government, failed. It seems that the Turkish Government wished to impress its Central Power partners.

261 Norfolks were captured at Kut of whom only 78 ever returned to Norfolk, a rate of loss of 70%.; 7 out of every 10 Norfolks died during their captivity of maltreatment and disease.

Norfolks Captured at Kut

A Norfolk newspaper of the time records the capture of Kut:

NORFOLKS CAPTURED AT KUT

Official lists of men of the Norfolk Regiment reported from the base as believed to have been taken prisoner at Kut-el-Amara include the names of Gunner D Ingram 26010 (Beccles), Sergt. M Harmer 4210 (Beccles), Sergt. H Strowger 3514 (Bungay), Private P Ellis 8532 (Bungay), Private C Leverington 7388 (Bungay), Private W Wilby 8363 (Bungay).

The camp to which Billy was sent was unknown until the announcement of his death at Yarbachi.

The fate of the prisoners mentioned in the above newspaper article is shown below:

Prisoner's Name Rank Unit Died Age Commemoration
Major Norman Harmer Sergeant 2nd Norfolks 21/02/1917 43 Baghdad (North Gate) War Cemetery
Hubert Strowger Lance-Sergeant 2nd Norfolks 31/12/1916 ? Basra Memorial
Dick Charles Louis Ingram Gunner 86th Heavy Bty, RGA 30/09/1916 ? Basra Memorial
William Wilby Private 2nd Norfolks 30/09/1916 22 Baghdad (North Gate) War Cemetery

It is assumed that Privates Ellis and Leverington survived their ordeal and returned home.

The following newspaper report appeared after letters were received from prisoners.

THE 2nd NORFOLKS PRISONERS OF WAR

To the Editor:

Dear Sir

May I correct one statement in the very interesting letter re 2nd Norfolk Regiment prisoners published in your paper to-day. The writer says that because Quartermaster-Sergeant Niblock had written from Affion Kara Hissar, probably the whole regiment are there. There are only 22 of the men at Affion Kara Hissar. This I have in a letter from an officer in that camp last week. As a matter of fact the men are scattered all over Asia Minor. So far we know the addresses of between 80 to 90 of them. These are at Bilemedix, Airan, Yarbachi Bagdadbaull, Yosgad, Castamouni, Tamara, Affion Kara Hissar and Brussa. By far the biggest number of these are at Yarbachi.

Yours faithfully,

Frances W. Burton

Secretary, Norfolk Regiment Prisoners of War Help Organisation.

After being informed that Billy was missing presumed dead, the Wilby family had the following card printed:

IN LOVING MEMORY OF

WILLIAM

THE BELOVED SON OF GEORGE AND JANE WILBY

WHO DIED SEPTEMBER 1916

AT YARBACHI, TURKEY

AGED 22 YEARS

We never thought when we said goodbye

You were going to that foreign land to die

But the unknown grave is the bitterest blow

None but loving hearts can know.

From his loving Father, Mother, Brothers and Sisters

Billy was buried in the camp. It has subsequently been discovered that Private Wilby died on 30 September 1916 from dysentery, brought on by the conditions in the camp. He was buried in Yarbish Cemetery.

After the War all the graves from Yarbish and other cemeteries were exhumed and consolidated to form CWGC Cemeteries; where the cemeteries and graves could be properly maintained. The CWGC records that Private Wilby is buried in Baghdad North Gate Cemetery Plot 21, Row I, Grave number 45.

His mother received 60 in back pay, a pension of 5 shillings a week for life.

Norfolk Regt. Memorial

First World War Norfolk Regiment Memorial in Norwich Castle (Stephen Stratford 2005).

Medal Entitlement

For his service during World War One, Private Wilby was awarded the 1914-15 Star, British War Medal and Victory Medal with MID oakleaf. These medals, a memorial plaque and a mentioned-in-despatches certificate were sent to his Mother.

The MID Certificate text is shown below.

THE WAR OF 1914-1918

NORFOLK REGIMENT No.8363 Pte. W WILBY was mentioned in a despatch from Lieutenant General Sir Percy H N Lake K.C.B K.C.M.G. dated 24 August 1916. For gallant and distinguished services in the field.

I have it in command from the King to record His Majesty's high appreciation of the services rendered.

Winston S Churchill

Secretary of State for War

War Office

Whitehall S W

1 March 1919

St. Paul's Memorial

Located within London's St. Paul's Cathedral is a memorial which reads:

Kut-el-Amara

5 December 1915 to 29 April 1916

To the memory of

5746 of the garrison who died in the siege

or afterwards in captivity.

Erected by their surviving comrades

Liverpool Street Memorial

Inside London's Liverpool Street Rail Station, there is a memorial errected by The London Society of East Anglians.

East Anglian Memorial

The Memorial errected by the London Society of East Anglians (Stephen Stratford 2002)

The text on the memorial (shown above) reads "This memorial to the men of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Cambridgeshire who fell in the Great War 1914-19 is erected by The London Society of East Anglians".

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