British Military & Criminal History:

1900 to 1999.

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Introduction

This section explains what happened to some of the principal figures after the Nuremberg trial.

Burton C. Andrus
Francis Biddle
Norman Birkett
Martin Bormann
Karl Donitz
Hans Fritzsche
Walther Funk
Gustav Gilbert
Rudolf Hess
Robert Jackson
Geoffery Lawrence
David Maxwell-Fyfe
Airey Neave
Otto Kranzbuehler
Constantin von Neurath
Ion Timofeevich Nikitchenko
Erich Raeder
Roman Rudenko
Hjalmar Schacht
Baldur von Schirach
Robert Servatius
Sir Hartley Shawcross
Albert Speer
Jack G. Tex Wheelis
John Woods

The People

Burton C. Andrus:

After retiring from the US Army, he became a Professor of Geography and Business Administration at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington. He died in 1977, aged 85.

Francis Biddle:

In 1942 he was the Chief Prosecutor in the George Dasch trial. Biddle retired and wrote his autobiography "In Brief Authority". He died in 1968, aged 82 years.

Norman Birkett:

He was made a member of the House of Lords in 1947. He died in 1962, aged 82.

Martin Bormann:

His remains were tentatively identified in Berlin in 1972. He was legally declared dead by a West German court in 1973.

Karl Donitz:

He was released from prison after completing his sentence. He died in 1981 aged 89.

Hans Fritzsche:

After his acquittal, he was convicted by a German court. He was freed in 1950. He died in 1953, aged 53.

Walther Funk:

After serving 11 years of his life sentence, he was released in 1957 for health reasons. He died two years later aged 69.

Gustav Gilbert:

He wrote his book "Nuremberg Diary". After the war, he pursued a teaching and writing career in psychology. He died in 1977, aged 65.

Rudolf Hess:

Although he was found not guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity due to spending the last four years of the war in British prisons, Hess spent the rest of life in prison; the only IMT Life Imprisonment prisoner to serve the full life term. In 1987, he supposedly committed suicide in prison. Hess' family claimed that he was murdered, to prevent him revealing details about the British Nazi sympathisers he was to meet, after his flight to Scotland. Hess was aged 93.

Robert Jackson:

For a more detailed account of Jackson's career click here.

Otto Kranzbuehler:

He defended several German industrialists at subsequent trials. He went on to developed his own corporate law practice.

Geoffery Lawrence:

He was made Baron Oaksey for his role in the trial. He died in 1971.

David Maxwell-Fyfe:

After the trial. he was involved as Winston Churchill's Home Secretary in several famous British domestic criminal cases. He was the Home Secretary who refused to commute Derek Bentley's death sentence. He eventually became Earl Kilmuir.

Airey Neave:

He became a Conservative Member of Parliament, and a campaigner for Hess' early release. He was killed by an INLA car bomb outside the House of Commons in 1980.

Constantin von Neurath:

He served seven years of his sentence, before being released in 1954 for health reasons. He died two years later, aged 83.

Ion Timofeevich Nikitchenko:

His death was reported some years later in the Soviet media.

Erich Raeder:

He served nine years of a life sentence, being released in 1955. He died in 1960, aged 84.

Roman Rudenko:

He became the Chief Prosecutor of the USSR. In 1960, he prosecuted the U2 pilot Gary Powers.

Hjalmar Schacht:

After his acquittal, he was sentenced to eight years by a German court. He was cleared on appeal in 1950. He died in 1970, aged 93.

Baldur von Schirach:

He was released after completing his prison sentence. He died in 1974, aged 67.

Robert Servatius:

He returned to private law work. In 1961, he appeared as Adolf Eichmann's defence lawyer, at Eichmann's trial in Israel.

Sir Hartley Shawcross:

Left Labour Party politics, and became a corporate lawyer.

Albert Speer:

Considered lucky to have avoided the death sentence, unlike his deputy Fritz Saukel, Speer served his prison term, being released in 1966. He wrote two autobiographies. He died in 1981, aged 76, in a London hotel room.

Jack G. "Tex" Wheelis:

He served with the US Army in the Korean War, and later as a ROTC instructor. He died in 1954, aged 41, after suffering a heart attack.

John Woods:

Never used as an executioner after the IMT, Woods was killed serving with the US Army in the Korean War.

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